In collaboration with Dr.
Erin Lipp from the College of Environmental Health,
Dr. Hernandez received an NIH grant to investigate
the epidemiology of Salmonella.
Specifically, Dr. Hernandez is determining the
prevalence of Salmonella in wild birds and
mesomammals. The objective of the study is to
determine if there is any geographic, spatial or
genotypic relationship between Salmonella cases
isolated from wildlife and serotypes of Salmonella
that cause non-food borne salmonellosis.
In this project, water and wildlife from two
watersheds (one in North and one in South Georgia)
are being compared.
White Ibis Health
ibises are beautiful wading birds, synonymous with
Florida wetlands. However, likely due to rampant
development, these birds have become highly
urbanized. In some cases, flocks of birds are
extremely habituated and beg for food in parks and
neighborhoods. This shift in behavior, from foraging
on aquatic invertebrates in clean water to consuming
anthropogenic food, may come at a cost to their
health. Dr. Hernandez is investigating two themes:
1) what is the consequence of this shift in behavior
for the health of ibises, 2) do ibises play a role
as carriers of potentially zoonotic pathogens?
Additional Lab Member Research
Shaun BooneI am researching the use of three commonly used suture materials and one newer antibacterial suture for the closure of a coeliotomy in sturgeon. I am evaluating suture retention, suture breakdown, and suture inflammatory reaction as related to overall healing. I am also evaluating the long‑term effects of surgically implanted dummy transmitters in relation to effects on physiology and internal pathology potentially associated with the transmitter. This study aims to propose surgical methods that could be implemented in a field setting for endangered or threatened sturgeon species and are more closely related to current methods used in veterinary medicine.
Dr. Hernandez's recent publications
Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques
Rufous Fishing Owl camera-trapped in Sierra Leone
Backyard chicken flocks pose a disease risk for neotropic birds in Costa Rica
Investigation of shell disease in Map turtles
Technique, safety and efficacy of intra-abdominal transmitters in nine-banded armadillos
Surgical technique for intra-abdominal radio transmitter placement in North American river otters
Hematology of the Pascagoula map turtle and the southeast Asian box turtle
* = Dr. Hernandez served as senior or corresponding author; when I am in last position that indicates position as Principal Investigator initiating research, GST(graduate), UST(undergraduate), or VST(veterinary) students under Dr. Hernandez’s supervision. # = DVM intern/resident under Dr. Hernandez’s supervision). Note that some publications reflect previous legal last names: Foerster and Hernandez-Divers
*Hernandez-Divers SM. 2002. Keeping Unusual Pets: Geckos. Textbook for children ages 8-10. Heinemann Library, Oxford, UK. ISBN# 1403408300
*Hernandez-Divers SM. 2002. Keeping Unusual Pets: Snakes. Textbook for children ages 8-10. Heinemann Library, Oxford, UK. 2002. ISBN# 1403402841
Book Chapters (4 book chapters published prior to 2008 are not listed)
1. *Hernandez SM and MJ Yabsley. 2012. Chapter 21: Wildlife Disease Ecology: What Can Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians Learn from This Discipline? In: R. E. Miller and M. Fowler (eds). Fowler & Miller Current Therapy 7. 161-169.
2. Zimmerman D and Hernandez SM. Submitted to Editor 2013. Tapiridae. In ME Fowler and RE Miller, Ed. Fowler’s Zoo and Wildlife Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 8th Volume.
3. *Hernandez SM. Chemical Immobilization of Wild Animals. In K Clark and C Trim. Veterinary Anaesthesia, 11th Ed. In press, 2013.
4. #Perpinan D, Hernandez-Divers SM and Hernandez-Divers SJ. Ofidios (Snakes). Atlas de Medicina, Terapéutica y Patología de Animales Exóticos (Atlas of Medicine, Therapy and Pathology of Exotic Animals). Pp 119-139. CHAPTER WAS SIGNIFICANTLY UPDATED IN 2008 FOR 2nd EDITION
5. #Perpinan D, Hernandez-Divers SM and Hernandez-Divers SJ. Saurios (Lizards). Atlas de Medicina, Terapéutica y Patología de Animales Exóticos (Atlas of Medicine, Therapy and Pathology of Exotic Animals). Pp 141-173. CHAPTER WAS SIGNIFICANTLY UPDATED IN 2008 FOR 2nd EDITION
6. Hernandez-Divers SM and Hernandez-Divers SJ. Quelonios (Chelonia). Atlas de Medicina, Terapéutica y Patología de Animales Exóticos (Atlas of Medicine, Therapy and Pathology of Exotic Animals). Pp 175-211. CHAPTER WAS SIGNIFICANTLY UPDATED IN 2008 FOR 2nd EDITION
Lay Publications or Technical Reports (one prior to 2008 not listed)
- Hernandez SM and GSTLoyd KA. 2013. When the Cat’s Away, Small Critters Pay. Viewpoint in UGARESEARCH magazine.
- Hernandez SM. 2013. The Joys (Really) of Co-Teaching. Chalk Talk: Teaching Tips from the Teaching Academy. 2nd Edition. UGA Teaching Academy.
- GSTConway, A. Carroll, J.P., and Hernandez, S. 2011. Pygmy Hippopotamus Conservation in Sierra Leone. Newsletter of the University of Georgia’s Pygmy Hippopotamus Project. Submitted to all stakeholders involved in pygmy hippo research.
- GSTConway, A. Carroll, J.P., and Hernandez, S. 2009. Observations of White-breasted Guineafowl (Agelastes meleagrides) on Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone. G@llinformed: Newsletter of the Galliformes.
Journal articles (peer reviewed)
- Hernandez SM. 2013. Salmonellosis and Songbirds. SCWDS Briefs 28(4): 2-4.
- GSTGonzales-Astudillo and SM Hernandez. 2012. Avian Salmonellosis. WSFNR Wildlife Management WMS-12-14. 5 pp.
- Hernandez SM. 2012. Cats on Candid Cameras. 2012. SCWDS Briefs 28(2):2-3
Scientific journals - Submitted or in revision
1. Hernandez, SM, Weygandt PL, Reeves JX, Mendellhall CD, Ritchie BW, Carroll CR, Sanchez S. Antimicrobial Resistance of Neotropical Avian Fecal Flora Reflects Human Activity. American Journal of Veterinary Research. Revision submitted
2. GSTConway, A.L., deMaar, T.W., Hernandez, S.M, and Carroll, J.P. (Submitted 29 March 2013). Evaluation of Radio Transmitter Attachments for the Pygmy Hippopotamus. Wildlife Research.
3. VSTConrad J, VSTNorman J, Rodriguez A, Dennis P, Arguedas R, Jimenez C, Yabsley MJ and *Hernandez SM. Survey of domestic pets for exposure to and infection with selected pathogens and the implications for wild carnivore and human health in Costa Rica. Ecohealth In revision
GSTCasey CL, SM Hernandez, MJ Yabsley, KF Smith,
and S Sanchez. The carriage of
antimicrobial resistance by the enteric bacteria
from imported tokay gecko (Gekko gecko)
destined for the pet trade.
Wildlife Diseases (in
Published or Accepted/In press
- *Hernandez, SM, Mattsson BJ, Cooper RJ, Carroll CR. Seasonal dynamics of avian communities in secondary forest and shade-coffee plantations of the Monteverde region, Costa Rica. Accepted, PLosONE.
- GSTGoynor JL, Smith LL, Yabsley MJ, and *Hernandez SM. Safety and utility of a novel field anesthetic protocol for gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Accepted, Wildlife Society Bulletin.
- GSTGonzales Astudillo, V, SM Hernandez, SL BooneGST, EK Lipps, S Shersthra, and MJ Yabsley. Spatial, temporal and intraspecific differences of haemoparasite infection and relevant physiological parameters of wild birds in Georgia, USA. Accepted, International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Revision submitted
- GSTBoone SS, S. J. Divers , A.C. Camus , D. L. Peterson , C.A. Jennings , J. L. Shelton, and S. M. Hernandez. Pathologic and Physiologic Effects Associated with Long-Term Intracoelomic Transmitters in Captive Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), Accepted, North American Journal of Fisheries Management
- GSTKistler, WM, SM Hernandez, JR Ballard, SL ArnoldUST, T JohnsonUST, and MJ Yabsley. 2013. Evaluation of a restriction fragment length enzyme assay for differentiation of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium across a standard region of the genome. Journal of Parasitology (in press)
6. GSTConway, A.L., Hernandez, S.M, Carroll, J.P., Green, G.T., Larson, L. 2013. Local awareness of and attitudes toward pygmy hippopotamus conservation in the Moa River Island Complex, Sierra Leone. Oryx (in press).
7. GSTLoyd, K.T., S.M. Hernandez, B.C. Shock, G.J. Marshall, K.J. Abernathy, and B.J. Foster. Risk factors experienced by free-roaming cats in a suburban, southeastern town. Veterinary Record (in press).
8. Hernandez, SM, CR Carroll, C Jimenez, P Villegas, B O’Connor, MJ Yabsley, M Garcia, S Riblet, and PL Weygandt. Do Shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease sink for wild birds? EcoHealth (in press)
9. USTRossow, JA, SM Hernandez, SM USTSumner, BR USTAltman, CG USTCrider, MB USTGammage, KM Segal, and MJ Yabsley. 2013. Haemogregarina infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. Published online ahead of print, March 2013
10.GSTLoyd, K.T., S.M. Hernandez, G.J. Marshall, K. J. Abernathy, J.P. Carroll, and B.J. Foster. Quantifying free-roaming domestic cat predation using animal-borne cameras. Biological Conservation 160:183-189
11.GSTBoone SS, S.M. Hernandez , A. C. Camus , D. L. Peterson , C. A. Jennings , J. L. Shelton and S. J. Divers. 2013. Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 142(3):649-659
12.Hernandez SM, B USTGalbreath, DF Riddle, AP Moore, MB Palamar, MG Levy, CS DePerno, MT Correa, and MJ Yabsley. 2013. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from North Carolina and current status of the parasite in the United States. Parasitology Research 112:693-698
13.GSTLoyd, K.T. and S.M. Hernandez. 2012. Public perceptions of domestic cats and preferences for feral cat management in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia. Anthrozoos 25(3):337-351.
14.Smith KF, MJ Yabsley, S Sanchez, CL CaseyGST, MD Behrens, and SM Hernandez. 2012. Salmonella isolates from wild caught Tokay Geckos (Gekko gecko) imported to the US from Indonesia. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12:575-582.
15.GSTLoyd, K.T., S.M. Hernandez, G.J. Marshall, K. J. Abernathy and B. J.Foster. 2012. Kitty Cams: using new technology to study free-roaming cats. The Wildlife Professional Summer:60-61
16.Hernandez SM, Keel K, Sanchez S, Trees E, Gerner-Smidt P, Adams JK, Cheng Y, Ray A 3rd, Martin G, Presotto A, Ruder MG, Brown J, Blehert DS, Cottrell W, Maurer JJ. 2012. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78:7290-7298.
17.Keeler, SP, MJ Yabsley, SE Gibbs, SN McGraw, and SM Hernandez. 2012. A new Isospora species of passerines in the family Turdidae from Costa Rica. Journal of Parasitology. 98:167-169.
18.Keeler, SP, MJ Yabsley, JM Fox, SN McGraw, and SM Hernandez. 2012. Isospora troglodytes n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae), a new coccidan species from wrens of Costa Rica. Parasitology Research 110(5):1723-1725.
19.Yabsley, MJ, JF Fischer, and SM Hernandez. 2012. The Lethal Jump from Wildlife to Humans: Why zoonotic diseases are on the rise. The Wildlife Professional. Spring: 40-43.
20.*Hernandez, SM, Tuberville TD, Frank P, Stahl S, #McBride, MM, Buhlman, KA, Divers, SJ. 2011. Health and reproductive assessment of a free-ranging Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) population following translocation. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 20: 84-93
21.*Hernandez, SM., Schumacher J, Lewis SJ, Odoi A, Divers, SJ. 2011.Cardiopulmonary parameters, arterial and venous blood gas analysis and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana). American Journal of Veterinary Research 72: 1519–1526.
22.Alworth, LC, Hernandez SM, Divers SJ. 2011. Laboratory Reptile Surgery: Principles and Techniques. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50:11-26.
23.Divers SJ, Papich M, #McBride M, Stedman NL, #Koch TF, Perpinan D, Hernandez SM, Barron GH, Pethel M, and Budsberg SC. 2010. Intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). American Journal of Veterinary Research 71:1277–1283.
24.GSTConway A, Hernandez SM and Carroll J. 2010. Rufous Fishing Owl Scotopelia ussheri camera-trapped at midday near Tiwai Island, Sierra Leone. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 17(1):90-91.
25.*Hernandez SM, Gammons D, Gottdenker N, Mengak M, Conner M, Divers SJ. 2010. Technique, safety, and efficacy of intra-abdominal transmitters in nine-banded armadillos. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:174-180.
26.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Hensel P, Gladden J, Hernandez-Divers SM, Buhlmann KA, Hagen C, Sanchez S, Latimer KS, Ard M, Camus AC. 2009. Investigation of shell disease in map turtles (Graptemys spp.). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:637-52.
27.Yabsley MJ, GSTKeeler SP, Gibbs SEJ, gstMcGraw SN, Hernandez-Divers SM. 2009. New species of Isospora from the blue-crowned motmot (Momotus momota) from Costa Rica. Journal of Parasitology 95: 1189-1191.
28.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Villegas P, Jimenez C, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Garcia M, Riblet SM, Carroll, R, O’Connor B, Webb J, Yabsley MJ, Williams SF, and Sanchez S. 2008. Backyard Chicken Flocks Pose a Disease Risk for Neotropical Birds. Journal of Avian Diseases 52:558–566.
29.#Perpinan D. Hernandez-Divers SM, Latimer KS, Akre T, Hagen C, Buhlman KA and Hernandez-Divers SJ. 2008 Hematology of the Pascagoula map turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) and the south-east Asian box turtle (Cuora amboinensis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39: 460–463.
30.VSTHaag KM, Hernandez-Divers SM, Latimer K, Garner MM, Reavill DR, Schmidt RE and Hernandez-Divers SJ. (2008) Infiltrative lipoma in a black rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 17: 129-131.
31.*Hernandez-Divers SM. 2008. Of birds, people (and coffee): research and conservation in Costa Rica. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 22:59-65.
32.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, Wilson GH, #McBride M, Hernandez-Divers SM, Cooper T, and Stedman N. 2007. Endoscopic orchidectomy and salpingohysterectomy of pigeons (Columba livia): an avian model for minimally-invasive endosurgery. Journal of Avian Medicine & Surgery 27:22-37.
33.#McBride M, Hernandez-Divers SJ, #Koch T, Latimer K, Wilson H, Hernandez-Divers SM and Stedman N. Preliminary evaluation of resting and post-prandial bile acid levels in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16:129-134.
34.#Perpinan D, Hernandez-Divers SM, #McBride M, #Koch T and Hernandez-Divers SJ. Comparison of three different techniques to perform blood smears in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 16:99-101.
35.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Prieto F, Unda JC, Villegas P, Stedman N, Ritchie B, Carroll R and Hernandez-Divers SJ. 2006. A Survey of Selected Avian Pathogens of Backyard Poultry in Northwestern Ecuador. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 20: 147-158.
36.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Aguilar RA, Leandro-Loria D, Foerster CR. 2005. Health evaluation of a radiocollared population of free-ranging Baird’s tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) in Costa Rica. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36:176-187.
37.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Schumacher J, Stahl S and Hernandez-Divers SJ. 2005. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane following premedication with butorphanol in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36:169-175.
38.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Hernandez-Divers SM, Wilson GH, and Scott SJ. 2005. Endoscopic evaluation of reptiles: diagnostic coelioscopy. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 15: 41-55.
39.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, Stedman NL, Hernandez-Divers SM, Schumacher J, #Hanley CS, Wilson GH, Vidyashankar AN, Zhao Y and Rumbeiha WK. 2005. Renal Evaluation in the green iguana (Iguana iguana): Assessment of plasma biochemistry, glomerular filtration rate, and endoscopic biopsy. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36:155-168.
40.Abou-Madi N, Scrivani P, Kollias GV and Hernandez-Divers SM. 2004. Diagnosis of skeletal injuries in chelonians using computer tomography. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35:226-231.
41.Garner MM, Hernandez-Divers SM and Raymond JT. 2004. Reptile neoplasia: A retrospective study of case submissions to a specialty diagnostic service. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice 7:653-671.
42.*Hernandez-Divers SM. 2004. Principles of wound management of small mammals: hedgehogs, prairie dogs and sugar gliders. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice 7:1-19.
43.Hernandez-Divers SJ and Hernandez-Divers SM. 2004. Avian diagnostic endoscopy. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 26: 839-852.
44.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Bakal RS, Hickson BH, Rawlings CA, Wilson GH, Radlinsky M, Hernandez-Divers SM and Dover SR. 2004. Endoscopic sex determination and gonadal manipulation in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35: 459-470.
45.Hernandez-Divers SJ, Stahl SJ, Hernandez-Divers SM, Read MR, #Hanley C, #Martinez F and Cooper TL. 2004. Coelomic endoscopy of the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 14:10-18.
46.Hernandez-Divers SJ and Hernandez-Divers SM. 2004. Xenogeneic skin grafts using porcine small intestinal submucosa in two barn owls (Tyto alba), an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba), and a common crow (Corvus brachyhynchos). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17:224-234.
47.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Orcutt CJ, Stahl S, Garner MM, Keating J, Schiller C. 2003 Lymphoma in lizards: Three Case Reports. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 13:14-22.
48.*Hernandez-Divers SM and Garner MM. 2003. Neoplasia in reptiles with an emphasis on saurians. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice 6:251-275.
49.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Hernandez-Divers SJ and Wyneken J. 2002. Angiographic, anatomic, and clinical technique descriptions of a subcarapacial venipuncture site for chelonians. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 12:32-37.
50.*Hernandez-Divers SM and Hernandez-Divers SJ. 2001. Diagnostic imaging of reptiles. Journal Vet Post-Graduate Clinical Study 23:370-391.
51.*Hernandez-Divers SM, Kollias GV, Abou-Madi N, Hartup B. 2001. Surgical technique for abdominal radiotransmitter placement in North American river otters (Lutra canadienses). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 32:202-205.
52.*Foerster SM, Dykes N, Flanders J, French T. 2000. Cervical chordoma in a ferret (Mustela pturious furo). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216: 665-666.
53.*Foerster SM, Gilson S, and Bennett A. 2000. Surgical technique for the repair of palatine luxations in a blue and gold macaw. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 14:118-121.
54.*Foerster SM, Bailey JE, Aguilar R, Loria DL, Foerster C. 2000. Butorphanol/xylazine/ketamine immobilization of free-ranging Baird's tapirs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36:335-341.